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Those are the chief words you have to know

Cetaceans is divided in two suborders, Misticeti (11 species) and Odontoceti (67 species).
It's own their name to indicate us the respective peculiarities, in fact the Misticeto term draws origin from the Greek word Mystax (that it means "moustaches") to indicate the presence of the so-called fanoni (corneous laminae with filtering function); Odontoceto instead derives from the Greek word Odontos (that it means "tooth").  


The cetaceans have developed to a body a lot streamlined and hydrofoil, the front limbs have been transformed in fins, while those posterior ones have gone completely lost, the tail have been transformed in the propulsive organ developing an exceptional muscolature, on its top those have been developed to two tail lobes and in the greater part of the cetaceans (that need of a sure speed) have appeared the not joined dorsal fin to the skeleton, with stabilizer function. The movement from the high one towards the bottom of the tail, typical of the swim of the cetaceans, has had to the land origin of the same ones, their vertebral column did flex and still flex in vertical sense (in the fish horizontal with vertical tail). Disappeared the hair replaced in its function of thermal insulator from layers adiposeness. The skull has endured a deformation that has leaded the nostrills on its top for one greater comfort in the respiration during the swim. Cetaceans emits wide range of sounds having a function of large sociality (in some species every individual seems to have a "name" marked by one personal sonorous emission). They are totally unprovided of olfaction. The sleep is in truth drowsiness with regular respirators intervals, in the Tursiops has been demonstrated the ability to make sleep half brain for time. Equipped of great brains, in some cases greater than that human (Sperm whale 8 kg, Killer whale 5.6 kg) but, and that is the important, second in the animal reign only to the man in the relationship between body weight and brain weight .

The Misticeti catch up enormous dimensions (twenty or thirty meters and many tens of tons), they have the airhole formed from two orifices and their jaws are corneous sheet supplies in said variable number and dimension fanons. Their sociality is bound from the fulfillment of long migrations in search of the food and in reproductive scopes, in spite of that succeeds to communicate to enormous distances (hundred of kilometers emitting sounds to vlf) increasing the such way the concept of shoal. They do not emit sounds for the ecolocation.

They have developed to peculiar predatory technical due to the type of food they eats mainly composed from animals of plancton and small fish. 

The hunting techniques are many; exist the so-called filtrators that swim slowly with the enormous opened wide mouth, equipped of long fanons, literally skimming the plancton from the water;
there are the swallower, that adopt a mainly predatory behavior, they in fact are equipped of underthroat folds that allows to swallow enormous water amounts in order to expel with force, also thanks to the powerful tongue, through the courts fanons, forming therefore in mouth a bolus to swallow. This last Misticeti has developed technical of hunting many assets, also for the type of prey of which they feed that it is not limited, like the plancton, to let be transported from the currents but it is escaping express. 
Some species operates an encirclement and forces the prey in the most driven in shoals for example  with columns of emitted air bubbles from many meters of depth (Megattera), or goes to rouse small crustaceans moving the sounding-depth with the snout (grey Whale), other completes wide movements with the mouth in order to swallow the greater water amount (common Finner).   


The Odontoceti are medium much smaller of Misticeti (also 1.4 m as an example the Focena) but in some cases they catch up a remarkable size (sperm whale even if its positioning between the Odontoceti is still object of arguments), has one airhole equipped of an only orifice. They manifest strong and long-lasting social ties.

The predatory techniques of the Odontoceti are several, that because of the enormous variety of possible prey they eats. 

Some of them complete the deepest immersions, fighting with monstrous prey like the giant squids or more simply with octopussy (sperm whale), others with exit nearly completely from the water for feeding of seals or assault in shoals the enormous  Misticeti (killer whale).
But what mainly differentiates the Odontoceti from the Misticeti is the possibility to use (also in order to characterize the prey, but not only) the biosonar, a magnificent instrument of ecolocating thanks to which, through the emission of sonorous waves to most vhf (click) and the captation of the return echo, succeeds to characterize objects and obstacles also in the more absolute darkness.
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